All You Need to Know About Production

The objective of any business firm is to maximize the difference between total revenue and total cost. This requires among other conditions that the firm purchases and combines factors inputs in such a way that the total cost of producing any particular level of output is the lowest possible figure, given existing technological and institutional conditions. The word production means manufacturing.

Production in the wide sense includes other activities that do not imply manufacturing of physical commodities. This is because the manufacturing of such commodities will be useless until they get to the consumers who need them for their satisfaction. This includes the process of getting goods manufactured to the final consumer such activities includes transportation, distribution and marketing. In addition , services which does not involve the “creating” of physical goods but which goes into adding to the satisfaction or utility of human beings are included in production and all these lead to the satisfaction of consumers and therefore, they are all part of production. A production process is the set of all activities that are required to convert a set of inputs (human resources, raw materials) into desired output such as finished products and services. Production therefore is the conversion or transformation of input into desire output.

WHY YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THE KEY ASPECT OF FACTORY PRODUCTION

There are major key aspects or let me say types of production namely: job production, batch production and flow production. It is possible that these keys speech of production are utilized in a factory at different stages of the production of a product. JOB PRODUCTION: is the manufacture of a single complete unit of a product by an operative or a group of operatives and a number of such products can be worked upon simultaneously by different groups of workers. Each group of workers will complete work on the unit before taking up another.

BATCH PRODUCTION: batch production requires that the work on any product is divided into parts or operations. And that each operation is completed through the individual units making up the batch before the next operation is under taken.

FLOW PRODUCTION: is the processing of the materials continuously and progressive. Thus, their is no idle time as in batch processing since work is complete on a unit at a stage of production, it is moved on to the next stage without waiting for the other Items in the batch. It is necessary each operation or manufacturing stage is of equal length, and there is no moment off the production line; inspection is located within the flow production line and the inspection function does not occupy more than the unit operation time, all stages are balance, the correct material, plant and equipment is provided on time and maintenance is by anticipation not default.

SEE THE TYPES OF GOODS IN PRODUCTION

The goods in production can be classified in various ways, such classification includes: capital goods, consumer goods, durable goods and non-durable goods.

CAPITAL GOODS: these are goods needed for the production of some other goods such as machines, equipments.

CONSUMER GOODS: are those goods that are needed for the satisfaction of immediate wants, such as food stuffs.

DURABLE GOODS: these are goods that can last for a long period of time and can therefore be used as many time as possible such as furniture, electronics.

NON – DURABLE GOODS: these are goods which have shot life spam and can therefore be used probably only once or a few number of time such as raw materials generally.

KNOW THE PRODUCTION FUNCTION

Supposing the maximum amount of any production that a firm can produce with any given collection of factor input is determined by prevailing institutional circumstances and by the existing state of technical knowledge. The relationship between the inputs and the outputs is expressed symbolically by a production function of the general form Q=F(V1 V2 Vn) where the variables V1 V2. Vn represent quantities of various factor input and the variable Q represent the maximum output that the firm can produce with a giving set of the input variables. It is assumed that the effect of an increase in any of the input variable is at least up to some limit to increase output. It is also assumed that the proportions in which various factor inputs can be combined to produce a given quantity of output are normally variable. Cases of fixed proportions (at least among ingredients) are found in certain chemical processes; but otherwise, experience indicates that input proportions can be varied significantly with output at a constant level.

FIND OUT ABOUT PRODUCTION LIFE CYCLE

The essence of successful new product introduction of simplification may lie in the appropriate timing of the action. The characteristics of a generalizing product life cycle. The product life cycle is an important tool for analysis and planning of the market activity, it shows the trends in sales and profitability of a particular product over its life cycle. This life spam further has clearly separate stages just like the life of an individual human being.

SEE MORE ABOUT STAGES IN THE PRODUCTION LIFE CYCLE

There are four major stages in the production life cycle these are: introduction stage, growth stage, maturity stage and decline stage.

INTRODUCTION STAGE: this stage will be dominated by the need to establish the product in the market by building buyers and distributors’ awareness of the product and its benefit, consumer advertising and trade promotions will be important in this initial communication process.

GROWTH STAGE: once successfully established, the new product may begin to enjoy rapid sales growth which along with the lack of competition may make this the most profitable stage of the life cycle of the product. The growth stage should be managed so that a full demand base is built in market; there is selective building of customer demand at the expense of existing or substitute product types marketed by competitors.

MATURITY STAGE: it is essential to company profitability and cash flow that , the stage be prolonged for as long as possible for well established products and brands this should be a time for consolation in the market place is mainly concerned with market share, so critical marketing activities need to be managed. To maintain product distribution and customer access to the product, to maintain customer loyalty to the brand or product and hence the race of re- purchase.

DECLINE STAGE: ether for reasons of technical obsolescence, changes in customer or Trade attitudes towards the product over familiarity with it or the emergence of a better product elsewhere in the market; a stage may be reached when sales and profitability start a consistence and perhaps irreversible decline. Once management has recognized and accepted the inevitable, he should withdraw all expenditure on the product above its variables cost of production, and perhaps raising its price.

SEE THE PRODUCTION FACTOR:

Production factors are the agents, inputs or resources used in the process of production. Without such factors, productions may not be possible. However, it is not production factors themselves that are of much importance but the services that such factors could render in production. These production factors includes: land, capital, entrepreneur and labour.

LAND: is the earth and all the natural resources found in and on it. Such resources includes: forest, rivers, minerals and even it includes such thing as sunlight. Land is the final source of all materials because any commodity can be ultimately traced back to the land. The reward of land is rent. The term land is used in the widest sense to include all kinds of natural (as distinct from man-made) resources.

CAPITAL: could be as all forms of wealth that are set aside for the production of further wealth. Thus, capital represents the collection of wealth that are not needed for immediate consumption. Capital is also described as a derived factor because capital has to be produced before being used to produce commodities.

ENTREPRENEUR: is a person who initiates, organizes, control and directs the process of production and bears the resulting risk in the production process. An entrepreneur is the business organizer and the one who combines other factors of production for maximum output. The shapes of the curves in this figure are based on a normal distribution. The actual shape of the curve and the length of duration of the four constituent stages will of course, varies for each production or brand.

Product Packaging Tips

Product packaging is designed to protect a product. However, it is possible to use the packaging of a specific product to market it to consumers as well. You can use various product packaging tips in order to find the perfect balance between marketing your product and packaging it properly. In order to pack correctly, you will need to know how to analyze the market. You will also need to know what your customers want. Lastly, you will need to know how to pack in a way that allows the customer to remove the product easily.

Understand Your Product

Before you can package your product correctly, you will need to look at how other related things are packaged. Look at these product packaging ideas and incorporate them with product packing ideas of your own. You can take advantage of market research so that you can find out what products are successful. Once you have found out which things are more successful, you can find out what parts of their packaging makes them more successful.

You also need to consider the size of the product packaging. Shelf space at different retail stores is exceedingly expensive. Because of the price of retail shelf space, you will need to make sure that the packing is as small as possible. Keeping the packaging small can ensure that you get your money’s worth.

It can also help your packing cause to stay updated on new product packaging ideas and new product packaging technology. Doing so can help you keep up with competition related to your industry and product.

Understand Product Packaging Laws

How you pack your product is affected by numerous regulations and laws. Some of these laws only pertain to specific products. It is important for you to understand the laws and regulations of packing before you start to pack your product. It can hurt your cause if you create packing that is not legal.

The Consumer Product Safety Commission has set laws into play that only apply to the packing of specific products. The Food and Drug Administration has done the same. This is to ensure the safety of customers and the product in general. Product packaging laws normally apply to various medications and household chemicals. Be safe by knowing the requirements of your product’s packing.

Work with Retailers

There are a lot of large and popular retailers that have some requirements as far as packing is concerned. These requirements may deal with the size of the packaging, the images on the packaging, and the description printed on the packaging. The retailers may also require products to include whatever the stores need to reduce product thievery.

Gamification For Productivity

“Gamification” has become a buzzword in recent years among the tech crowd, but it has spilled over into other arenas as well. With the pervasiveness of smartphone apps and new websites popping up every day, “gamification” seems to be everywhere. At its simplest, it’s just a way of introducing elements of gaming into other tasks.

There are lots of ways to do this: common elements include earning points, gaining levels, and sometimes earning achievements, badges, or prizes. There’s gamification for working out, buying coffee, listening to music, shopping, recycling, and eating out. While retailers and marketers have been using gamification to their best advantage, gamification can also be used to increase productivity, whether in individuals or in a team.

To encourage general productivity, take a look at HabitRPG, which has a website and an iOS app. At its heart, it’s a to-do app, but “RPG” stands for Role-Playing Game, which HabitRPG uses to incentivize productivity. There are four different elements when you start out using the program: habits, dailies, to-dos, and rewards. Habits are actions that you want to either encourage or avoid, but don’t have a specific frequency. Dailies are tasks that you want to repeat on a regular basis: every day, once a week, etc. To-dos are one-off tasks like on any other to-do app. Rewards are things you can purchase by completing your tasks. You earn a certain amount of gold and a certain amount of experience points for each task. Experience points let you level up and eventually unlock different game elements. Gold allows you to buy rewards. As you level up, the game introduces a market, item drops, pets, armor, and other elements. It’s a fun way to keep all of your productivity items in one place with a dynamic and well thought-out incentive scheme.

If you like the idea of a gamified productivity app but don’t need quite as many features, Carrot is an iOS app with a mean streak. It’s a minimalist to-do app that is very user friendly and unlocks features as you gain points. Be warned, though: Carrot has a personality, and if you don’t complete your tasks, she gets angry. How many points you get and how she talks to you depend on what mood she’s in. Carrot is a quirky app that is probably the most unique of the bunch, and worth checking out if only for its surprises.

EpicWin is another RPG productivity program that gives you points and prizes for your real-world tasks. Here again, you can choose your character and level them up as you go. You can’t yet spend gold on things, but EpicWin is in the process of being developed.

If you’re looking to be more productive with a specific task or process, try SuperBetter. SuperBetter gives you tasks, quests, power-ups, and “bad guys” depending on your specific journey, like exercising more, increasing willpower, stress relief, or improving your relationships. It’s not a productivity app in itself, but improving these aspects of your life can definitely improve the rest of it.

If the area of productivity you’re struggling with is managing your finances, there are programs for that, as well. SaveUp is a program tailored to incentivize saving and making smart financial choices. It gives you credits for the choices you make, and you can cash them in to contests with real prizes, or you can cash them out. SmartyPig is a website that also focuses on saving, though a little less gamified than SaveUp. SmartyPig makes saving automatic, and it also rewards you for meeting your goals.

If you’re not so interested in using apps or websites, gamification doesn’t have to involve technology: you can use game elements on your own. The best way to go about it is to start by identifying the tasks that you have a hard time completing or that you want to incentivize. For each of those tasks, determine a point value. You may also want to assign them different categories. Maybe doing the dishes gets you two blue points, but cleaning the bathroom gets you eight red points.

From there, identify rewards, positive (but not goal-subverting) actions or items, and assign them point values as well. Then, to get your rewards, you first have to do enough tasks to afford them. Don’t stop there. When you’re defining your own system, you can get pretty creative. Find ways to allow you to “level up” or do a boss battle: what really big challenge do you have coming up, or what milestone can you celebrate passing? Give yourself constant ways to progress, and you’ll see yourself finding ways to become more productive while having a little fun on the way.